Characterizing the impact of process variation on 45 nm NoC-based CMPs

Autores UPV
Revista Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing


Current integration scales make possible to design chip multiprocessors with a large amount of cores interconnected by a NoC. Unfortunately, they also bring process variation, posing a new burden to processor manufacturers. Regarding the NoC, variability causes that the delays of links and routers do not match those initially established at design time. In this paper we analyze how variability affects the NoC by applying a new variability model to 100 instances of an 8 ¿ 8 mesh NoC synthesized using 45 nm technology. We also show that GALS-based NoCs present communication bottlenecks due to the slower components of the network, which cause congestion, thus reducing performance. This performance reduction finally affects the applications being executed in the CMP because they may be mapped to slower areas of the chip. In this paper we show that using a mapping algorithm that considers variability data may improve application execution time up to 50%. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.