New formulations of functional white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper: a rheological, microstructural and sensory study

Autores UPV
Revista European Food Research and Technology


highest overall liking and found them beneficial for health. Therefore, new white sauces with high nutritional value, high acceptability, good rheological properties and stability against syneresis could be formulated using red pepper and modified starch. Keywords Functionality · Microstructure · Rheology · Sensory perception · Red pepper · White sauce Introduction Consumers now appreciate foods rich in compounds with potential long-term health effects, including bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, fibre and flavonoids [1]. The types of food rich in bioactive compounds are also called functional foods. The term ¿functional foods¿, which is closely related to health maintenance and preventive medical care [2], was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s [3]. Many publications show that consuming functional foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, obesity, macular degeneration and colon-rectal cancers. Moreover, the consumption of these phytochemicals appears to mitigate the effects of diabetes, reduce serum cholesterol levels and promote bowel movements [4¿6]. Consequently, red sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum) have attracted the attention of researchers due to their high contents of bioactive compounds, such as fibre, phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [7]. These beneficial properties are attributed to the sweet peppers, and their consumption appears to improve scar formation, prevent atherosclerosis and haemorrhages, prevent increases in blood cholesterol levels and improve stamina [8]. Abstract Red sweet peppers are good sources of antioxidant compounds, such as fibre and carotenoids. Therefore, innovative products that may replace traditional ones, such as white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper, should be developed to improve their functionality. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behaviour, microstructure, syneresis, colour, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of new white sauces enriched with red sweet pepper. The results of the rheological studies (viscoelastic behaviour) showed that in the available frequency window all the sauces showed a predominance of the elastic modulus versus the viscous modulus. The effect of incorporating red pepper on the rheological properties depended upon the type of starch used. Microstructure of native starch sauces showed a complex matrix composed of protein and amylose and amylopectin leached from the granules that have been disintegrated during the sauce elaboration. Fat globules were homogenously dispersed and associated with the protein phase. Modified starch sauces showed more swollen starch granules compared with native starch sauces and a protein matrix stabilising the fat globules. All the sauces exhibited considerable intrinsic autofluorescence due to the presence of carotenoids from the red pepper. Consumers scored the modified starch sauces regardless of the starch concentrations based on their