Toe berm design for very shallow waters on steep sea bottoms

Autores UPV
Revista Coastal Engineering


The toe berm is a relevant design element when rubble mound breakwaters are built on steep sea bottoms in breaking conditions. Different design formulas can be found in the literature to predict the damage caused to submerged toe berms placed on gentle bottom slopes. However, these formulas are not valid for very shallow waters in combination with steep sea bottoms where toe berms receive the full force of breaking waves. To guarantee breakwater stability in these conditions, new design formulas are needed for toe berms. To this end, physical model tests were carried out and data were analyzed to characterize rock toe berm stability in very shallow water and with a bottom slope m = 1/10. Based on test results, a new formula was developed with three parameters to estimate the nominal diameter (Dn50) of the toe berm rocks: water depth at the toe (hs), deep water significant wave height (Hs0), and deep water wave length (L0p).